water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it
is called hard water. Hard water is known to be a
primary source of clogs.
Water softening is a technique that serves the removal of the ions
that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and
magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening.
water causes a higher risk of lime scale deposits in water
systems. Due to this lime scale build-up, pipes are blocked and
the efficiency of operating equipment is reduced. This increases
the utility cost as much as twenty percent.
Water softeners are specific ion exchangers that are designed to
remove ions, which are positively charged. Softeners mainly remove
calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions.
Calcium and magnesium are often referred to as 'hardness
minerals'. Softeners are sometimes even applied to remove iron.
Softeners can operate automatic, semi-automatic, or manual. Each
type is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before
regeneration is necessary. A
water softener collects hardness minerals within its conditioning
tank and from time to time flushes them away. Ion exchangers are
often used for water softening.
an ion exchanger is applied for water softening, it will replace
the calcium and magnesium ions in the water with other ions, for
instance sodium or potassium. The exchanger ions are added to the
ion exchanger reservoir as sodium and potassium salts (NaCl and